The small city of Kalundborg, 64 miles west of Copenhagen, was the first municipality to have engineered a symbiotic relationship between all its industries so that the excess heat, water, waste and other resources leftover become feedstock for other industries and farms, creating a closed loop system.

Throughout the town of 17,000 residents, inputs and outputs “weave together like strands of thread, creating a tapestry of efficiency,” known as the Kalundborg Symbiosis.

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Photo courtesy of Symbiosis Center

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